16 tenses

1. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

1 .1 THE USE OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE
We use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking.
Example : Please don’t make so much noise. I’m studying.
We also use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking.
1 .2. THE ADVERBS OF TIME USED
The adverbs of time used in Present Continous tense are “NOW, RIGHT NOW,
TOMORROW,ETC
1 .3 . THE PATTERN OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE
The patterns of Present continous tense consist of :
1 .3 .A. Positive Pattern
S + am/is/are + Verb 4…………………………………………… .Now
S + sedang + 4…………………………………… . .sekarang

Examples :
1 . I am studying English now.
2. We are going to Jakarta tomorrow (akan)

1 .3 .b The Negative Pattern
S + am/is/are + Not + Verb 4…………………………………… Now
S + tidak sedang + 4 …………………………………… .sekarang
Example :
1. I am not studying now
2. He is not sleeping now
3. My father is not watching television now.
4. we aren’t going to Jakarta Tomorrow.
1 .3 .c. The Interrogative Pattern
Am/Is/Are + S + Verb 4………………………………………… . .Now?
Apakah + S + sedang + 4…………………………sekarang ?
Examples :
1 . Are you studying English now ? Yes, I am/ No, I am not
2. Is he eating fried rice now? Yes, he is/ No, he isn’t
3. Is your father working in the office now? Yes, He is/No, He isn’t
1 .3 .d. Qusetion-word Pattern
QW + Am/Is/Are + S + Verb 4………………………………… . . .Now?
QW + yang + S + 4…………………………………… . .sekarang?
Examples :
1 . what are you doing now ? studying
2. Where is he studying English now ? at school

EXERCISE I : Translate these sentences into English.
1 . Jack sedang tidur sekarang
2. Mary sedang mengerjakan tugas itu
3 . Kami sedang menonton sebuah film di televisi

EXERCISE 2 : Change the following sentences into (+), (-), and (?)
1 . They are speaking English now.
2. We are not reading now.
3 . Is your mother frying rice now? No, she isn’t.

EXERCISE 3 : Write questions by using question words based on the underlined words in the following sentences.
1 . John is eating a plate of rice in the dining room now.
2. The cat is eating fried chicken in the kitchen now.
3 . Tom and Jerry are quarrelling about food now.

EXERCISE 4 : Answer the following questions with your own words.
1 . Are you studying English now ?
2. Is your father reading a newspaper now?
3 . Is your mother sewing a shirt now?

EXERCISE 5 : Write sentences by using the following verbs
Writing, speaking, sewing, growing, discussing, doing, hunting,eating, drinking, dancing, singing, making, building, teaching, explaining, talking, watching, shopping, sleeping, typing, driving, riding, training, working
2. PAST TENSE
2.1 . The Use of Simple Past Tense
We use the past simple to talk about actions or situations in the past.
2.2. The Adverbs of time used
The adverbs of time used in this tense are Yesterday, last… . . , a week ago, this morning , last night, yesterday morning, yesterweek, yestermonth, yesteryear, etc.
2.3 . The Patterns of Simple Past Tense
2.3 .1 . The Positive Pattern
S + Verb 2…………………………………………………… Yesterday
S + 2………………………………………………… . .
Examples :
1 . John saw a crocodile in the river yesterday.
2. We studied English here last week.
3 . They played football in the field yesteryear
2.3 .2. The Negative Pattern
S + didn’t + Verb 1…………………………………… …… . .Yesterday
S + tidak + 1…………………………………kemarin
Examples :
1 . John didn’t see a crocodile in the river yesterday.
2. We didn’t study here last week.
3 . They didn’t play football in the field yesteryear.
2.3 .3 . The Interrogative Pattern
Did + S + Verb 1…………………………………………… . .Yesterday?
Apakah + S + 1…………………………………………kemarin?
Examples:
1 . Did John see a crocodile in the river yesterday ? Yes, he did/No, he didn’t
2. Did you study here last week ? Yes, we did/ No, we didn’t
3 . Did they play football in the field yesteryear? Yes, they did/No, they
didn’t
2.3 .4. The Question-word Pattern
QW + did + S + Verb 1……………………………… .………Yesterday?
Qw + yang + S + 1…………………………………… .?

Examples:
1 . What did John see in the river yesterday ? a crocodile
2. When did John see a crocodile in the river? yesterday
QW + Verb 2……………………………… .………Yesterday? S + did
QW + 2…………………………… . .?

Examples :
1 . Who saw a crocodile in the river yesterday ? John did
2. What grew in the rice-field last year? A coconut tree did
EXERCISE I : Translate these sentences into English !
1 . Kami menjual mobil kami kemarin
2. Apakah kamu pergi ke luar tadi malam ?
3. Dia tidak datang ke pesta itu minggu lalu
EXERCISE II. Change the following sentences into (+), (-), ( ?), Present Continous Tense.
1 . Tom saw the cats having business under the tree yesterday
2. They played cricket at school last week
3 . Did the policeman arrest the thief last night ?

3. PRESENT FUTURE TENSE
We often use will in this situation:
Offering to do something:
e.g. That bag looks heavy. I’ ll help with it.
Agreeing and refusing to do something:
e.g. I’ve asked john to help me but he won’t
Promising to do something.
e.g. I will come to your house tonight. I promise.
Asking someone to do something.
Will you close the window,please!
A. The positive pattern of Present Future tense is as follows:
S + will/shall + Verb 1…………………………………… Tomorrow
S + akan + 1 …………………… .
Example:
1 . John will run a restaurant in Jakarta Next month.
2. Mrs.Maria Eva will play badminton tomorrow

B. The negative pattern of Present Future tense is as follows:
S + won’t/shan’t + Verb 1…………………… ………… Tomorrow
S + tidak akan + 1 ……………………………… . .
Example:
1 . John won’t run a restaurant in Jakarta Next month.
2. Mrs.Maria Eva won’t play badminton tomorrow
C. The Interrogative pattern of Present Future tense is as follows
Will/Shall + S + Verb 1………………………………… . . Tomorrow?
Apakah + S + akan + 1………………………… . .?
1 . will John run a restaurant in Jakarta Next month? Yes, He will/No,he won’t.
2. will Mrs.Maria Eva play badminton tomorrow? Yes, She will/No, she won’t
D. The QW pattern of Present Future tense is as follows
QW + will/shall + S + Verb 1…………………… .………Tomorrow?
QW + yang + S + akan + 1……………………… .?
1 . when will John run a restaurant in Jakarta? Next month
2. who will run a restaurant in Jakarta Next month? John will
3 . where will John run a restaurant Next month? Next month

We often use will to be going to when we say what we have already decided to do, what we intend to do in the future.
e.g. A:There’s a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it?
B: No, I am too tired. I am going to have an early night.
The pattern :
S + am/is/are + going to + Verb 1……………………………………
S +am/is/are + not + going to + Verb 1…………………… …………
Am/is/are + S + going to + Verb 1………………………………… . . .?
QW + am/is/are + S + going to + verb 1…………………………… . .?

4. PRESENT TENSE
Present Tense is used to talk about something in general. And it is also used to talk about something which is happened repeatedly or habituallly activities.
e.g. + The earth goes round the sun
– The earth doesn’t go round the sun
? Does the earth go round the sun ?
+ I get up at 8 o’clock every morning
– I don’t get up at 8 o’clock every morning
? Do you get up at 8 o’clock very morning?
The pattern :
S + Verb 1 (s/es)…………………………………… Everyday/today
S + don’t/doesn’t + Verb 1…………………… ……Everyday/today
Do/Does + S + Verb 1………………………………Everyday/today?
QW + Do/does + S + Verb 1…………………… .…Everyday/today?
We use the present simple when wse say how often we do things:
e.g. How often do you go to the dentist ?
Mary doesn’t often drink tea.

5. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
We use past continuous Tense to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but hadn’t finished:
This time last year I was living in Brazil
We often use the past continuous Tense and the past simple together to say that something happened in the middle of something else:
When I was working in the garden, I hurt my back.
The pattern :
S + was/were + verb 4………………… .When + s + Verb 2…… .……
S + was/were + not + Verb 4…………… .When + s + Verb 2…………
Was/were + S + verb 4………………… . When + s + Verb 2 …… . … .?
QW + was/were + S + verb 4……………When + s + Verb 2 …………?
e.g. + She was cooking rice when Tom came yesterday
– She wasn’t cooking rice when Tom came yesterday
? Was she cooking rice when Tom came yesterday ?

6. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
We often use the present perfect Tense to give new information or to announce recent happening:
e.g. Do you know about Mary ? She’s gone to Jakarta.
We can use the Present Perfect Tense with already to say that something has happened sooner than expected :
e.g. Don’t forget to post this letter, will you? I’ve already posted it.
We can use the Present Perfect Tense with just (= a short time ago)
e.g. Would you like something to eat? ‘No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch’ .
We talk about a period of time that continuous up to the present, we use the present perfect.
e.g. Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Nora?
Nora: Yes, I have been to 47 different countries.
We often use ever and never with the present perfect:
e.g. have you ever eaten caviar?
We have never had a car.
We have to use present perfect Tense with This is the first time… , It the first time…
e.g. This is the first time he has driven a car. (not drives)
We often use the present perfect with yet. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting
something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences: e.g. Has it stopped raining yet ? (not ‘did it stop’).
The pattern:

S + have/has + verb 3……………………… .etc
S + haven’t/hasn’t + Verb 3…………… .… .etc
Have/has + S + verb 3………………… . . … .etc?
QW + have/has + S + verb 3……………… . .etc?

7. PAST PERFECT TENSE
We use the Past perfect to say that something had already happened before this time :
Example :
– When I arrived at the party, Tom had already gone home
– When I got home, I found that someone had broken into my flat and had stolen my fur coat.
– George didn’t want to come to the cinema with us because he had already seen the film twice.
– It was my first time in an aeroplane. I was very nervous because I hadn’t flown before.
The pattern:

S + had + verb 3…………when/before S + V2
S + hadn’t + Verb 3……… when/before S + V2
Had + S + verb 3………… when/before S + V2 ?
QW + had + S + verb 3……… when/before S + V2

8. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

S + have/has + been + verb 4…………etc
S + haven’t/hasn’t + been + verb 4……etc
Have/has + S + been + verb 4……… .etc ?
QW + have/has + S + been + verb 4…etc ?
Example :
– Pelajar pelajar tengah menyanyi sejak pagi ini
+ The students have been singing since this morning
– The students haven’t been singing since this morning
? Have the students been singing since this morning ?
Translate these sentences into English !
1 . Hari sudah hujan selama dua jam
2. Berapa lama kamu sudah belajar bahasa inggris ?
3 . Saya sudah menonton acara TV tersebut sejak dua jam

9. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
S + had been + verb 4…………when S + V2
S + hadn’t been + Verb 4……… when S + V2
Had + S + been + verb 4………… when S + V2 ?
QW + had + S + been + verb 4……… when S + V2 ?
Example :
– Mereka tengah mengerjakan PR ketika saya datang kemarin
+ They had been doing the homework when I came yesterday
– They hadn’t been doing the homework when I came yesterday
? Had they been doing the homework when I came yesterday ?
Translate these sentences into English !
1 . Mereka sudah bermain bola selama satu jam ketika ada petir yang menakutkan
2. Ken sudah merokok selama 30 tahun ketika akhirnya dia berhenti
3 . Orkestra itu sudah bermain selama sepuluh menit ketika seorang laki laki berteriak

10. PRESENT FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
S + will be + Verb 4 + O + at………… . .o’clock
S + won’t be + Verb 4 + O + at……… . .o’clock
Will + S + be + Verb 4 + O + at……… .o’clock ?
QW + will + S + be +Verb 4…………o’clock ?
Example :
– Kamu sedang akan pergi ke sekolah pukul 7 besok pagi
+ You will be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning
– You won’t be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning
? Will you be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning ?
Translate these sentences into English !
1 . George sedang akan meninggalkan Indonesia pada pukul 9 besok pagi
2. Saya sedang akan menyelesaikan PR itu sore nanti
3 . Dia (pr) sedang akan menonton acara di stadion tersebut nanti malam

11 . PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
S + will have + verb 3 + ……… .by the end……
S + won’t have + Verb 3 + ……… . .by the end… .
Will + S + have + Verb 3 + ………by the end… . ?
QW + will + S + have +Verb 3 +…………by the end… ?
Example :
– Kita sudah akan tiba di Jakarta besok sore.
+ We will have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon
– We won’t have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon
? Will we have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon ?
Translate these sentences into English !
1 . John sudah akan selesai mengerjakan pekerjaanya menjelang akhir minggu ini
2. Menjelang minggu depan saya akan selesai membaca buku ini
3 . Menjelang bulan depan dia akan membayar hutangnya

12. PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
S + will have been + verb 4………since……… .
S + won’t have been + verb 4…… .since……… .
Will + S + have been + verb 4……since……… .?
QW + will + S + have been + verb 4… .since… . .?
Example :
– Mereka tengah akan belajar sejak pagi besok
+ They will have been studying since this morning
– They won’t have been studying since this morning
? Will they have been studying since this morning ?
Translate these sentences into English !
1 . Menjelang akhir tahun ini kami akan sudah mempelajari bahasa inggris selama tiga tahun
2. Menjelang hari natal saya akan sudah bekerja di kantor ini selama lima tahun
3 . Menjelang liburan sekolah ini saya sudah mengikuti tes selama 5 kali
4. Menjelang hari raya idul fitri saya sudah akan dua kali pulang ke desa
13. PAST FUTURE TENSE
S + would + V1… IF + S + verb 2………… .etc
S + wouldn’t + verb 1… .+ object………… . .etc
Would + S + verb 1 … .+ object ……… .… . .etc ?
Example :
1 . Saya akan datang ANDAIKATA kamu mengundang saya I would come if you invited me
2. Tom akan melakukan perjalanan JIKAdia punya uang Tom would travel if he had more money
Exercise : Translate these sentences into English!
1 . Jika saya jadi kamu, saya tidak akan membeli rumah itu
2. Saya akan keluar jika hari tidak hujan
3 . Jika saya kaya, saya akan membeli sebuah villa

14. PAST FUTURE CINTINUOUS TENSE
S + would be + Verb 4……when S + verb 2……… .etc
S + wouldn’t + be + verb 4… .when S + verb 2………etc
Would + S + be + verb 4 … . . when S + verb 2……etc ?
Example :
– Sedianya mereka sedang akan pulang KETIKA kami datang
+ They would be going home when we came
– They wouldn’t be going home when we came
? Would they be going home when we came ?
Translate these sentences into English !
1 . Saya akan sedang menempuh ujian hari berikutnya pada waktu itu
2. Kami akan sedang membangun rumah itu pada waktu itu
3 . Mereka sedang akan bermain babak kedua pada pertandingan sepakbola waktu itu.

15. PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
S + would have + verb 3… . .IF + S + had + verb 3…… .
S + wouldn’t have + verb 3 ……object……… . .etc
Would + S + have + verb 3 …… .object……… . .etc ?
Example :
– Ia sudah akan menjadi presiden ANDAIKATA partainya menang dalam pemilihan umum.
– He would have become a presiden if his party had won in general election
Exercise : Translate these sentences into English!
1 . Jika saya telah mengetahui bahwa kamu sakit, saya akan menemuimu
2. Tom tidak akan mengikuti ujian itu jika dia mengetahui bahwa soalnya akan begitu sulit.
3 . Jika saya berjumpa dengan mu, saya akan mengatakan hello

16. PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
S + would have + been + verb 4… . .IF + S + had + verb 3…… .
S + wouldn’t have been + verb 4…… .object…………etc
Would + S + have been + verb 4. . …… .object……… . .etc ?
Example :
– Sedianya rapat tengah akan dimulai sejak pagi ANDAIKATA walikota sudah
datang tepat pada waktunya
– The meeting would have been starting since this morning if Mayor had come on
time.
Exercise : Translate these sentences into English!
1 . Sedianya concert itu tengah akan dimulai andaikata artis artis itu datang pada waktunya.
2. Sedianya saya tengah akan tidur andaikata mereka belum datang
3 . Andaikata ayah saya telah selesai berbelanja, ibu saya akan memasak makanan itu

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